Confusion can happen in the viva. Your examiners might not understand. They could have read a passage and got a different idea to what you meant. You could misunderstand a question, a comment or the point of a conversation.

Confusion in the viva doesn’t necessarily mean you’re wrong, your examiners are wrong or that something is wrong. It just means that there is confusion…

…but eventually confusion clears. It’s not comfortable but not harmful to your viva. It’s simply a possible part of the process.

It’s possible to actively work around confusion too. Pause to think. Check your thesis. Ask questions and in particular ask them to improve clarity. Check that your points are being understood.

Confusion isn’t comfortable but consideration and conversation clears the way to clarity.